Descriptions and articles about the Chard, scientifically known as Beta vulgaris var. cicla in the Encyclopedia of Life. Includes Ecology; Associations; Wiki. Beta vulgaris var. cicla Linn. 厚皮菜. Description from Flora of China. Root branched, not tuberlike. The leaves are used as a vegetable (spinach beet, Swiss . EPPO code: BEAVV; Preferred name: Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. cicla; Authority: (Linnaeus) Arcangeli. Notes. Beet cultivated as a.
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Beta vulgaris beet is a plant which is included in Betoideae subfamily in the Amaranthaceae family.
It is the economically most important crop of the large order Caryophyllales. Three subspecies are typically recognised. All cultivars fall into the subspecies Beta vulgaris subsp. The wild ancestor of the cultivated beets is the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. The roots of cultivated forms are dark red, white, or yellow and moderately to strongly swollen and fleshy subsp.
The stems grow erect or, in the wild forms, often procumbent; they are simple or branched in vulgarsi upper part,  and their surface is ribbed and striate. The upper leaves are smaller, their blades are rhombic to narrowly lanceolate. The flowers are produced in dense spike-like, basally interrupted inflorescences.
Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris – Wikispecies
Very small flowers sit in one- to three- rarely eight- flowered glomerules in the axils of short bracts or in the upper half of the inflorescence without bracts.
In fruit, the glomerules of flowers form connate hard clusters. The fruit utricle is enclosed by the leathery and incurved perianth, and is immersed in the swollen, hardened perianth base.
The seed contains an annular embryo and copious perisperm feeding tissue. There are 18 chromosomes found in 2 sets, which makes beets diploid. Cultivated beets are grown worldwide in regions without severe frosts. As descendants of coastal plants, they tolerate salty soils and drought.
They grow best on pH-neutral to slightly alkaline soils containing plant nutrients and additionally Sodium and Boron. The species description of Beta vulgaris was made in by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarumat the same time creating the genus Beta.
In the second edition of “Species Plantarum”Linnaeus separated the sea beet as its own species, Beta maritimaand left only the cultivated beets in Beta vulgaris.
The taxonomy of the various cultivated races has a long and complicated history, they were treated at the rank of either subspeciesor convarieties or varieties. Now rankless cultivar groups are used, according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Beta vulgaris belongs to the subfamily Betoideae in family Amaranthaceae s.
Beta vulgaris is classified into three subspecies: Beets are a food plant for the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. Spinach beet leaves are eaten as a pot herb.
Young leaves of the garden beet are sometimes used similarly. The midribs of Swiss chard are eaten boiled while the whole leaf blades are eaten as spinach beet. In some parts of Africa, the whole leaf blades are usually prepared with the midribs as one dish. The leaves and stems of young plants are steamed briefly and eaten as a vegetable; older leaves and stems are stir-fried and have a flavour resembling taro leaves. The usually deep-red roots of garden beet can be baked, boiled, or steamed, and often served hot as a cooked vegetable or cold as a salad vegetable.
EPPO Global Database
They are also pickled. Raw beets are added to salads. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilised beets or into pickles.
In Eastern Europe beet soup, such as cold borschis a popular dish. Yellow-coloured garden beets are grown on a very small scale for home consumption. The consumption of beets causes pink urine in some people. Jews traditionally eat beet on Rosh Hashana New Year. The roots and leaves of the beet vad been used in traditional medicine to treat vulharis wide variety of ailments. Apicius in De re coquinaria gives five recipes for soups to be given as a laxativethree of which feature the root of beet.
Beet greens and Swiss chard are both considered high cica foods which are implicated in the formation of kidney stones. Betaine and betalaintwo phytochemical compounds prevalent in Beta vulgarisare under basic research for their potential biological properties.
Cultivars with large, brightly coloured leaves vhlgaris grown for decorative purposes. Beets are cultivated for fodder e. The “earthy” taste of some beetroot cultivars comes from the presence of geosmin. Researchers have not yet answered whether beets produce geosmin themselves or whether it is produced by symbiotic soil microbes living in the plant.
Beets are one of the most boron -intensive of modern crops, a dependency possibly introduced as an evolutionary response its pre-industrial ancestor ‘s constant exposure to sea spray ; on commercial farms, a cidla tonne per hectare The composition of different betalain pigments can vary, resulting in strains of beetroot which are yellow or other colors in addition to the familiar deep red.
Other pigments contained in beet are indicaxanthin and vulgaxanthins yellow to orange pigments known as betaxanthins. Indicaxanthin has been shown as a powerful protective antioxidant for thalassemia and heta the breakdown of alpha-tocopherol Vitamin E.
Betacyanin in beetroot may cause red urine in people who are unable to break it down. This is called beeturia. The pigments are contained in cell vacuoles. Beetroot cells are quite unstable and will ‘leak’ when cut, heated, or when in contact with air or sunlight.
This is why red beetroots leave a purple stain. Leaving the skin on when cooking, however, will maintain the integrity of the cells and therefore minimize leakage. The sea beetthe ancestor of modern cultivated beets, prospered along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Beetroot remains have been excavated in the Third dynasty Vzr pyramid at Thebes, Egyptand four ebta beetroots were found in the Neolithic site of Aartswoud in the Netherlands though it has not been determined whether these were domesticated or wild forms of B.
Zohary and Hopf note that beetroot is “linguistically well identified. The ancient Romans considered beets an important health food and an aphrodisiac.
Roman and Jewish literary sources suggest that in the 1st century BC the domestic beet was represented brta the Mediterranean basin primarily by leafy forms like chard and spinach beet. Modern sugar vultaris date back vicla midth century Silesia where the king of Prussia subsidised experiments aimed at processes for vulgarls extraction. Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this race for white, conical tubers. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in KunernSilesia now Konary, Poland in The Silesian sugar beet was soon introduced to France where Napoleon opened schools specifically for studying the plant.
He also ordered that 28, hectares 69, acres be devoted to growing the new sugar beet. It remains a widely cultivated commercial crop for producing table sugar, in part due to subsidies scaled to keep it competitive with tropical sugar cane. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Beta vulgaris Beta vulgaris subsp.
List of beet diseases. Flora of North America Editorial Committee eds. Betoideae and notes on the taxonomy of Beta ” PDF. Archived from the original e-book on Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Archived from the vulgagis E-book on Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on An International Journal of Medicine.
Domestication of plants in the old world: Fresh beets, nature’s jewels for the table”. Retrieved from ” https: Pages using Tropicos template without author names Webarchive template webcite links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Cicoa articles needing clarification from February Articles with unsourced statements from November Taxonbars with 30—34 taxon IDs.