Syllabus for GPAT Paper. Pharmacology of drugs acting on Central nervous system, Cardiovascular system, Autonomic nervous system, Gastro intestinal. GPAT results are announced!!!! Click here to know your result!! For GPAT material, stay tuned to this site after NIPER-JEE [ ]. The GPAT question paper will consist of one hundred fifty ( Nos.) a candidate’s aptitude and knowledge of Pharmacy subjects and applied subjects ( as per the syllabus given in.
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Khandelwal ; Farnsworth et al. The plant may be considered as biosynthetic laboratory for multitude of compounds gpwt alkaloid, glycoside, volatile oils, tannins, saponins and flavonoids etc.
These compounds are termed as secondary metabolites and are responsible for therapeutic effects. To check the presence or absence of primary and secondary metabolites, all the extract were subjected to battery of chemical tests.
Few mg of residue of each extract was taken in 2 ml of chloroform and in it 2 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added from the side of the test tube. The test tube was shaken for few minutes. The development of red color in the chloroform layer indicates the presence of sterols. Few mg of residue was dissolved in chloroform. To this, few ml of acetic anhydride was added. Then two drops of conc. The greenish transient color indicates the presence of sterols.
The drug is boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, filtered and to the filtrate benzene, or ether or chloroform is added and shaken well.
The organic layer is separated to which ammonia is added slowly. The ammoniacal layer shows pink to red color due to presences of anthraquinone glycosides. The test is employed pahrmacy digitoxose containing glycosides. The extract of drug is dissolved in pyridine, sodium nitroprusside solution is added to it and made alkaline, pink or red color is produced.
Few mg of the residue of each extract ffor taken separately in 5 ml of 1. These filtrates were then used for alkaloid detection.
Development of an orange red color on the paper indicates the presence of alkaloids. To a little of each extract taken in dilute hydrochloric acid in a watch glass, few drops of the reagent was added, formation of cream colored precipitate shows the presence of alkaloids.
When few drops of this reagent were added to the test filtrate, a brown color precipitate was formed indicating the presence of alkaloids. A saturated aqueous solution of picric acid was employed for this test. When the test filtrate was treated with this reagent, an orange yellow precipitate was formed indicating the presence of alkaloids. A few mg of the test residue was taken in a test tube and shaken vigorously with small amount of sodium bicarbonate and water.
If stable, characteristic honeycomb like froth is obtained, saponins are present. The test residue of each extract was taken separately in water, warmed and filtered.
Tests were carried out with the filtrate using following reagent.
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Few drops of this solution was added to a little of the above filtrate. If dark green or deep blue color is obtained, tannins are present. If precipitate is obtained, tannins are present. If on an addition of a solution of potassium dichromate in test filtrate, dark color is developed, tannins are present. The pink, crimson or magenta color is developed within a minute or two, if flavonoids are present.
Violet or pink color is formed, if proteins are present.
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A little residue was taken with 2 ml of water and 0. Stllabus color is obtained, if proteins are present. The ninhydrin reagent is 0. A little of this reagent was added to the test extract. A violet or purple color is developed, if amino acids are present.
A few mg of the test extract was placed in a test tube containing 0.
To this solution, was added 1 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid from the side of the inclined test tube, so that the acid formed a layer beneath the aqueous solution without mixing with it. If a red brown ring appears at the common surface of the liquids, sugars are present. Hparmacy reagent was prepared by dissolving The test residue dissolved in water and heated with a little of the reagent.
If a red precipitate of cuprous oxide is formed within two minutes, mono-saccharides are present. Microbiology at a glance GPAT Downloads posted Jul 29,1: Chemical Test posted Jul 22,8: Pactice Test Papers posted Jul 22,1: Study Material posted Jul 22, State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation-critical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid.
GPAT Exam Paper Pattern & Time Table | GPAT | Exam & Results
Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface.
Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability.
Classification of complexes, methods of preparation and analysis, applications. Kinetics and Drug Stability: Importance of microbiology in pharmacy ; Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy: Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses; Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; Microbial genetics and variation; Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation; Sterilization: Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization.
Transformation, 2102, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Syllabsu of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters.
Isolation of mutants, factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special reference to penicillins, streptomycins tetracyclines and vitamin B Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy; Prescription: Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products.
General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products; Pharmaceutical calculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipes percentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc; Principles involved ypat procedures adopted in dispensing of: Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, phamracy, pastes, jellies, suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints sprays tablet triturates, etc; Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic dyllabus including incompatibilities of metals and their salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities.
Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids, quaternary gpay compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities; Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store dor design, legal requirements for establishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and wholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education First aid, communicable diseases, nutrition, family planning.
Organization and Structure of hospital pharmacy: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic committee, Budget preparation and Implementation. Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control: Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory Control principles, purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking; Drug distribution Systems in Hospitals: Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted; Dispensing of drugs to in-patients.
Types of drug distribution systems.
Charging policy, labeling; Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients; Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of ancillary supplies; Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply of sterile materials.
Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice, Master formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.
Sources’ of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information, Computerized services e. Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases. Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics, application of pharmacoeconomics. Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.
Importance of unit operations in manufacturing; Stoichiometry: Unit processes material and energy balances, molecular units, mole fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary and secondary quantities, equilibrium state, rate process, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionless formulae, dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems.
Types of flow, Reynold’s number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flow meters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure.