IEC Edition INTERNATIONAL. STANDARD. NORME. INTERNATIONALE. AC and/or DC-supplied electronic control gear for tubular. IEC AC and/or DC-supplied electronic control gear for tubular fluorescent lamps – Performance requirements. International Standard IEC has been prepared by subcommittee 34C: Auxiliaries for lamps, of IEC technical committee Lamps and related equipment.
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The actual operating frequency may deviate from the specified supply frequency. The standard essentially covers the same material as IECbut it is considerably more complex due to the high frequency aspect of electronic ballasts.
Electrical ballast — An electrical ballast is a device placed in line with the load to limit the amount of current in an electrical circuit. It may be a fixed or variable resistor, an electrical ballast is a device which limits the current through an electrical load.
These are most often used when a load has irc terminal decline when current through the load increases. If such a device were connected to a power supply. To prevent this, a ballast provides a resistance or reactance that limits the current.
The ballast provides for the operation of the negative-resistance device by limiting current. A gas-discharge lamp is an example of a device which, under conditions, has negative differential resistance.
In such a situation, every increase in the lamp current tends to oec the voltage dropped across it. Let d I represent the change in current I, and d V represent the change in voltage V, each variation can be positive if its variable increases. The differential resistance is the ratio between d V and d I, d V d I and it can be positive or negative. This is quite a different concept from the resistance, which is considered positive. In the case of a lamp, 660929 differential resistance really becomes negative because the positive variation for the current causes a negative variation for the voltage across the lamp.
For a mechanical analogy to negative 06929 behavior, and how a ballast can limit current, applying a force to the weight initially 609229 not cause it to move because the static friction of the weight against the surface is more than the applied force. If we flood the surface with depth of viscous oil. The transition between static friction and dynamic friction as the moves is the negative resistance region – less force creates more movement.
Ballasts can also be used simply to limit the current in an ordinary, prior to the advent of solid-state ignition, automobile ignition systems commonly included a ballast resistor to regulate the voltage applied to the ignition system.
Series resistors are used as ballasts to control the current through LEDs, for simple, low-powered loads such as a neon lamp or a LED, a fixed resistor is commonly used. Because the resistance of the ballast resistor is large it determines the current in the circuit, the term also referred to a automobile engine component that lowered the supply voltage to the ignition system after the engine had been started.
The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, the IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving the interchangeability of fuses in international trade.
All fuses of isc technologies tested to meet IEC standards will have similar time-current characteristics, north American standards call the replaceable element only the fuse.
IEC unifies the electrical characteristics of fuses that are interchangeable with fuses built to earlier British, German. The standard identifies application categories which classify the time-current characteristic of type of fuse. The application category is a two-digit code, the first letter is a if the fuse is for short-circuit protection only, an associated device must provide overload protection.
The first letter is g if the fuse is intended to operate even with currents as low eic those that cause it to blow in one hour and these are considered general-purpose fuses for protection of wires. Fuses of the same application category can be substituted for each other provided the voltage rating of the circuit does not exceed the fuse rating and they are available in five different body sizes, with ratings from 2 A up to A.
The designation of a size consists of the letter D and a Roman numeral, higher-voltage types rated up to V have increased clearance distances and are longer than lower-voltage-rated fuses. D0-type fuses are similar but have a smaller, cylindrical body and they are available in three different sizes with ratings from 2 A up to A. In some jurisdictions, replacement of the cartridge by unskilled personnel is allowed only for fuses up to a certain maximum rating.
If the fuse cartridge is inserted into the socket without the cap, fuseholders may be secured by screws to a panel, attached 6099 bus bars, or mounted on DIN rails.
IEC – Standards Australia
For the Neozed fuses, there are also fuse bases with integrated disconnecting switches, changing fuses with the circuit off increases the safety of the user. With new versions of these load disconnecting switches, the cartridges are no longer screwed. Traditional diazed fuse holders are made as a metal envelope covered with non-conducting porcelain cover. Under mechanical stress it is possible for the cover to crack partially or fully and it may happen if a fuse holder was accidentally dropped or someone was using too much force to screw it in.
Uncovered metal envelopes present a risk of shock and should be replaced immediately under extreme precautions by trained personnel. The smaller end cap has a diameter that varies with the fuse rating, the fixed part of the fuse holder contains a gauge ring, which will accept end caps up to a certain diameter. Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches wide, the inch dimension includes the edges, or ears, that protrude on each side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws.
Common uses include server, audio, and scientific lab equipment, the height of the electronic modules is also standardized as multiples of 1. The industry standard rack cabinet is 42U tall, the term relay rack appeared first in the world of telephony. Bythe term was also being used in railroad signaling, there is little evidence that the dimensions of these early racks were standardized. The inch rack format with rack-units of 1. The inch rack format has remained constant while the technology that is mounted within it has changed considerably, nineteen-inch racks in two-post or four-post form hold most equipment in modern data centers, ISP facilities, and professionally designed corporate server rooms.
They allow for dense hardware configurations without occupying excessive floorspace or requiring shelving, nineteen-inch racks are also often used to house professional audio and video equipment, including amplifiers, effects units, interfaces, headphone amplifiers, and even small scale audio mixers.
Thus, a 1U rackmount computer is not 1. This gap allows a bit of room above and below a piece of equipment so it may be removed without binding on the adjacent equipment.
State-of-the-art rackmount cases are now constructed of thermo stamped composite, carbon fiber.
Originally, the holes were tapped with a particular screw thread. Tapping large numbers of holes that may never be used is expensive, nonetheless tapped-hole racks are still in use, examples include telephone exchanges, network cabling panels, broadcast studios and some government and military applications.
The tapped-hole rack was first replaced by clearance-hole racks, the holes are large enough to permit a bolt to be freely inserted through without binding, and bolts are fastened in place using cage nuts.
In the event of a nut being stripped out or a bolt breaking, production of clearance-hole racks is less expensive because tapping the holes is eliminated and replaced with fewer, less expensive, cage nuts. The next innovation in design has been the square-hole rack. IEC — IEC is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes. There is a range of plugs and sockets of different sizes with differing numbers of pins, depending on the current supplied, the fittings are popular in open-air conditions, as they include IP44 weather-proofing.
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The blue fittings are used for providing weather-proofed exterior sockets for outdoor apparatus. In camping situations, the large 32 A blue fittings provide power to static caravans, whilst the smaller blue 16 A version ic touring caravans, the red three-phase versions are used for three-phase portable equipment.
IEC specifies general functional and safety requirements for any form of industrial high-current power connector, IEC specifies a range of mains power connectors with circular housings, and different numbers and arrangements of pins for different applications.
In both cases, the rating applies when detached or mated, but not ief the mating process, the more common IP44 variant features a spring-loaded hinged cap over the socket. When a plug is inserted, the cap hooks over a lug on the plug, fixed connectors are usually installed angled downward to prevent water entering. The IP67 variant includes a gasket and twist-lock ring which seals the two together, the two can be intermated, at the cost of 600929 locking mechanisms, they are only held by friction.
The connectors come in four current ratings 16,32,63 or A per pin, All consist of cylindrical connector pins arranged in a circle, with the earth pin 2 mm larger than the others.
This is surrounded by a shroud on the male connector. The standard defines connectors with 3,4 and 5 pins, but a variant with 7 pins is commercially available.
The key protrudes irc additional 3 or 4 mm beyond the shroud 6099, connectors rated at 63 A and A may optionally be equipped with a 6 mm pilot contact. This smaller pin in the centre of the connector is shorter than the others, designed to isc all the other pins when connecting a plug and socket.
IEC – Standards Australia
IEC — Different types of connector are specified for different combinations of current, temperature and earthing requirements. Interconnection couplers allow a supply from a piece of equipment or an appliance to be made available to other equipment or appliances. Couplers described under these standards have standardized 60992 and temperature ratings, each type of coupler is identified by a standard sheet number.
Kettle 660929 is a term used for the high-temperature C16 appliance inlet. Kettle plug is sometimes used to refer to regular temperature-rated C13 and C14 connectors.
Detachable appliance couplers are used in equipment, measuring instruments, IT environments. Each appliances power system must be adapted to the different plugs used in different regions, instead, a ief power supply cord can be included in the product packaging, so that model variations are minimized and factory testing is simplified.
A cord which is fitted with non-rewireable connectors at both ends is termed a cord set, appliance manufacturing may be simplified by mounting an appliance coupler directly on the printed circuit board. Assembly and handling of an appliance is easier if the cord can be removed without much effort. Appliances can be used in another country easily, with a change of the power supply cord.
The power supply cord can be replaced if damaged, because it is a standardized part that can be unplugged and re-inserted. Safety hazards, maintenance expenditure and repairs are minimized, IEC is divided into several parts, IECGeneral Requirements specifies two-pole and two-pole with earth couplers intended for the connection of a supply cord to electrical appliances.
As from IECthis part also applies to interconnection couplers which enable the connection and disconnection of an appliance to a cord leading to another appliance. This part of the no longer includes standard sheets which have been moved to a new part first published in IECSewing machine couplers specifies couplers which are not interchangeable with other couplers from IEC and they are rated no higher than 2.
IEC Interconnection couplers for household and similar 609929 and this section was withdrawn in January AES3 — AES3 is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between professional audio devices. The standard has been revised in and and is published in AES, worldwide, it is the most commonly used method for digitally interconnecting audio equipment.
Type I connections use balanced, 3-conductor, ohm twisted pair cabling with XLR connectors, Type I connections are most often used in professional installations and 06929 considered the AES3 standard connector. The hardware interface is implemented using RS line drivers and receivers. The AES-3id standard defines a ohm BNC electrical variant of AES3 and this uses the same oec, patching iecc infrastructure as analogue or digital video, irc is thus common in the broadcast industry.
For information on the synchronization of digital audio structures, see the AES11 standard, ief ability to insert unique identifiers into an AES3 bit stream is uec by the AES52 standard. Uec attempt was made to use a carrier able to support both rates, instead, AES3 allows the data to be run at any rate, and encoding the clock, the basic unit of transmission is the frame.
Frames contain 64 time slots and are 60299 once per sample time, at the highest level, each consecutive frames are grouped into an audio block. Alternating current — Alternating current, is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, iecc direct current flows only in one direction. A common source of DC power is a cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, the usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave.
In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves, audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current.
These types of alternating current carry information encoded onto the AC signal and these currents typically alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission. Electrical energy is distributed as alternating current because AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer, use of a higher voltage leads to significantly more efficient transmission of power.
The power losses in a conductor are a product iiec the square of the current and this means that when transmitting a fixed power on a given wire, if the current is halved, the power loss will be four times less. Power is often transmitted at hundreds of kilovolts, and transformed to — volts for domestic use, high voltages have disadvantages, such as the increased insulation required, and generally increased difficulty in their safe handling. In a power plant, energy is generated at a convenient voltage for the design of a generator, near the loads, the transmission voltage is stepped down to the voltages used by equipment.
Consumer voltages vary somewhat depending on the country and size of load, the voltage delivered to equipment such as lighting and motor loads is standardized, with an allowable range of voltage over which equipment is expected to operate.